What is electric charge ? And what are the properties of charge ?
in this topic we will discuss that, What is electric charge ? And what are the properties of charge ? We will also discuss that what are the processes of charging of an objects ?
This topic will help the students of class 12th and 10th to understand the topic, What is electric charge and what are the properties of charge ?
What is electric charge ? how can we charge a body? And what are the properties of charges ?
Electric charges – Charge is the intrinsic property of the body which is possessed by the body itself , due to which electrostatic force comes into play .
There are two types of charge positive (+ve ) i.e. proton and negative (-ve ) i.e. electron which is given by the Benjamin Franklin .
Processes to charge a body –
- Rubbing –
- i) – A glass rod rubbed by a piece of silk brought closer to another glass rod rubbed by the silk cloth repel each other . But these glass rods attract the silk cloth with which it was rubbed . In this case the glass rods gets positive charge and silk cloths gets negative charge .
ii)- When an Ebonite / Amber rods are rubbed with a fur then Ebonite rod gets negative charge and fur gets positive charge.
- Direct contact ( conduction)
iii)- When a pith ball is kept in contact with the rubbed glass or rubbed Ebonite rod pith balls get same kind of charge with which it is connected .
It can be understand with the help of following figure-
- Induction – when a charge body ‘A’ is kept near an uncharged body ‘B’ then some charge of opposite sign appears on the near face of body ‘B’ , and equal charge of opposite sign is appear on the another face of body B . so we can say the process of charging of a body without actual contact is called induction .
Let us understand how can we charge a body by induction ; Suppose a positively charged glass rod is kept near an uncharged body ‘B’ , then free electrons of B comes on the surface near the body A but positive charge appear on the opposite face ( because sphere on whole remain neutral ) as shown in fig. again when the sphere B is grounded then electrons move from ground towards the sphere which neutralise the positive charge on the other side of the sphere . The negative charge at the near end remain on the sphere , and when rod A is removed the negative charge appears on the complete sphere . And finally body B gets negatively charged .
Similarly we can see in fig. how can we charge two spheres by induction .
To view its video click on the video link given below –
Properties of charges –
When we see the several experiments carefully we will come to know that the following properties shown by the charged bodies –
(A) Like charges repel and unlike charges attracts , which is finally explained by the Coulomb . According to Coulomb’s The force of repulsion or attraction between charged body is directly proportional to the products of magnitude of charges and inversely proportional the square of the distance between the charged body .
(B) Quantisation of charge – It is the property of the charged particle due to which , the charge on a body is integral multiple of basic unit of charge i.e. electron (-e) or proton (+e) . It is given that charge on a body Q = n. e : where n is the integer . and e= 1.6 x 10-19 C .
( C ) Additivity of charge – It is the property of charge by virtue of which total charge of a system is obtained simply by adding algebraically all the charges present in the system . If q1 , q2 , q3 …… are the charges on the particle of the system then total charge on the system q= q1 + q2 + q3………. We should use proper sign of the charge during the addition of charges .
(D) Conservation of charge – According to this property total charge of the isolated system always remain constant . i.e. charge neither be created nor be destroyed but it can transfer from one body to another . When we rub a body then equal number of charges of opposite sign appear on the surfaces of these bodies .
To view its video click on video link given below –