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# Syllabus class 12 (physics)

Syllabus class 12 (physics)

The Syllabus  class 12 (physics) providing here is totally based on 2019-2020 pattern , if there will be any change in the syllabus , it will be improved and informed  to the students through the website – www.physicsclasses.online  , to get any improved information remain in contact with this site .

Topic removed from cbse class 12th physics. What are the benefits for the students or what are the drawbacks see in the video given below-

1. electrostatics –

Chapter 1: electric charges and fields   –

Electric charges ,  properties of charges (Conservation of charge , quantisation of charge etc. ), coulombs law ( between two point charges and due to multiple charges also known as superposition of  force due to multiple charges ) , permittivity of a medium ,  continuous charge distribution ( linear ,surface ,volume charge density) .

Electric field , electric field due to a point charge , electric field lines        ( electric lines of force ) , electric dipole , electric field due to a dipole       ( axial and equatorial) , torque on a dipole placed in uniform electric field . Electric flux , Gauss’s theorem and its applications (i.e. electric field at a point due to long straight charged conductor, charged infinite plane sheet , charged spherical shell) .

Chapter 2: Electrostatic potential and capacitance –

Electric potential and potential difference , electric potential due to a point charge and system of charges also due to electric dipole ( axial, equatorial and at any point) , equipotential surfaces , electric potential energy of a system of two point charges and of a dipole in an electric field .  Conductors and insulators , electric polarization and dielectric constant ( relative permittivity ) , capacitor and its capacitance ; combination of capacitor ( series and parallel ) , capacitance of parallel plate capacitor with dielectric slab /conducting slab  , energy stored in capacitor , common potential , lass in energy when two charged capacitors connected with each other .

1. current electricity-

Chapter 3: current electricity-

Electric current, drift velocity , mobility  , relation between drift velocity and current , proof of Ohm’s law on the basis of drift velocity , current density , resistance , conductance , resistivity, conductivity , relation between current density and drift velocity, effect of temperature on resistance and resistivity  , graph of resistance(resistivity) Vs temperature for conductors/alloy /semiconductors , Ohmic and non ohmic conductors ( graph) , carbon resister , combination of resistors ( series and parallel ) . Internal resistance (r) , terminal potential (V)  and emf (E)  of the cell and relation between them . also graph between ( V,E, r and R)  . Combination of cells (series, parallel ,and mixed grouping) , Kirchhoff’s law (junction and loop rules) , wheat -stone bridge , meter bridge , potentiometer and its applications ( effects on null points on different -different conditions ). Electrical energy and power .

1. Magnetic effect of current and magnetism-

Chapter 4: Moving charges and magnetism-

Oersted’s experiment , concepts of magnetic field, Biot-Savart’s law and its application ( magnetic field at a point using Biot -savart’s law due to current carrying wire finite( only formulae ) and infinite , at the centre and on the axis of a circular current carrying coil . Ampere circuital law and its application to infinite long straight current carrying conducting wire ( thin and thick ) , magnetic field inside solenoid / toroid . Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field and direction of force . force on a current carrying wire placed in uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current carrying wire and definition of one Ampere . Torque acting on a current carrying coil , and expression for potential energy stored in the coil placed in uniform magnetic field . Moving coil galvanometer its current sensitivity and conversion of galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter .

Chapter 5: Magnetism and matter-

Earth behaves like magnet , pole strength, magnetic dipole and magnetic moment . Expression for torque and potential energy when a magnetic dipole( short magnet) placed in uniform magnetic field  . Current loop as magnetic dipole and its magnetic moment , current carrying solenoid behave as short bar magnet ,  magnetic field intensity at a point due to magnetic dipole (short bar magnet) at axial, equatorial and any point . Magnetic field lines and its properties . magnetic moment due to revolving electrons in an atom Bohr magneton . magnetic elements of earth and relation between them .  Di- para-ferro magnetic substance ( with examples) and its properties . Electro magnet, permanent magnets and factor effecting its strength and  material suitable for making them .

1. Electromagnetic induction and alternating current-

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic induction-

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law , induced emf and current , Lenz’s law , Eddy current . self and mutual induction , expression for self- induction of current carrying solenoid , expression for mutual induction due to coaxial solenoids , units and dimensions of self and mutual induction . grouping of inductors  (series and parallel ) .

Chapter 7: Alternating current-

Alternating current. Peak, mean and rms( root mean square ) current/emf . Phasor diagram . phase relation and its phasor diagram when an AC source connected to only resistance, only inductor, only capacitor, resistance and inductor connected in series, resistance and capacitor connected in series , and resistance , capacitor and inductor ( LCR) connected in series , also discussion of  reactance and impedance . resonance circuit of LCR and discussion of Quality factor ( sharpness of resonance ) .power in AC circuits . power factor . Watt-less current . Ac generator and transformer .

1. Electromagnetic wave ( EMW)-

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic wave-

Production of  Electromagnetic wave their characteristics their transverse nature ( qualitative idea only )  , displacement current, Maxwell’s improvement of Ampere’s law . Electromagnetic spectrum their production ,properties and uses ( elementary facts )

6.Optics-

Chapter 9: Ray optics and optical instruments –

Reflection of light , spherical mirror , mirror formula , refraction of light , total internal reflection and its application , optical fibres , refraction at spherical surface , lenses thin lens formula , lens maker’s  formula  , magnification , power of a lens , combination of lens , refraction and dispersion of light through the prism .  Scattering of light . Optical instruments ( microscope , telescope ( refracting and reflecting))  and expression for magnifying power .

Chapter 10: Wave optics-

Wave-front , Huygen’s principle  , reflection and refraction on the basis of wave theory using Huygen’s principle , interference  of light ,  conditions of constructive and destructive interference using YDSE also  expression for  fringe width . Diffraction of light using single slit experiment . Width of the central maximum , difference between diffraction and interference.  Resolving power of microscope and limit of resolution . polarization , plane polarized light, law of malus , Brewster’s law uses of plane polarised light and polaroids .

1. Dual nature of radiation and matter –

Chapter 11: Dual nature of radiation and matter –

Emission of electron , photoelectric effect, Hertz’s and Lenard’s  observation , effect of intensity and frequency on photoelectric current, stopping potential and threshold frequency  , Einstein’s photoelectric equation  also the possible graph using these equation . Particle nature of light . Matter waves . Wave nature of particles .     De-Broglie relation . Davisson- Germer experiment( only conclusion).

1. Atoms and nuclei –

Chapter 12: Atoms –

Alpha particle scattering experiment , Rutherford’s model of atom , Bohr’s model, expressions for radius , velocity , total energy and time period  ( frequency ) , energy levels , hydrogen spectrum .

Chapter 13: Nuclei –

Atomic mass unit . Composition and size of nucleus , Radioactivity, alpha-beta and gamma emission and their properties . radioactive decay law . half life and mean life . Activity of a radioactive substance . mass defect , binding energy , binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number . nuclear fission and fusion .

1. Electronic devices –

Chapter 14: semiconductor devices and simple circuit-

Energy band in conductors, semiconductors and insulators  . Semiconductor diode ( both p-type and n-type)  . formation of deplation layer , potential barrier .  biasing of diode . forward and reverse characteristics . Diode as rectifier ( full wave and half wave ) . application of diode ( Zener , photo,light emitting diode and solar cell )

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